The current status and recent advances in high-resolution imaging of spinal vascular malformations.
The management of spinal vascular malformations (SVM) has improved over the last four decades with the evolution of imaging, anesthesia, microsurgery, and endovascular techniques. Commonly used high-resolution imaging techniques include CT angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, and digital subtraction angiography. We review the advances that have been made in these imaging modalities and discuss their present role for imaging SVM, with the goal of assisting neurosurgeons in making judicious use of current imaging techniques to develop the most effective management strategies for these complex lesions.
Than, KD; Sangala, JR; Wang, AC; Gandhi, D; La Marca, F; Park, P
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