Effects of personal air pollutant exposure on oxidative stress: Potential confounding by natural variation in melatonin levels.
Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) are commonly used biomarkers of oxidative stress. However, their associations with air pollutant exposure have not been consistent across studies. We hypothesize that the inconsistency is partly due to confounding of circulating melatonin. We analyzed urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), a surrogate of circulating melatonin, along with 8-OHdG and MDA, in 159 healthy adults who had not taken melatonin supplementation. Within the natural range of endogenously-generated aMT6s (0.3-93.5 ng/mg creatinine) measured in this study, increasing aMT6s levels were significantly associated with increasing concentrations of 8-OHdG and MDA. Measurements of PM2.5
, ozone (O3
), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2
), coupled with time-activity data, were used to calculate time-averaged personal exposures 12 -hour (12h) and 24-hour (24h) prior to urine collection. Without controlling for aMT6s, the relationships between pollutant exposure and 8-OHdG or MDA were not clear. After controlling for aMT6s, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in 12h PM2.5
and 12h NO2
exposure was associated with 6.1% [95%CI: 1.6%-10.8%] and 8.6% [1.3%-16.5%] increase in MDA, respectively. An IQR increase in 12h O3
exposure was associated with a 5.7% [1.9%-9.7%] in 8-OHdG. The findings suggest the need for controlling for aMT6s as a confounder in using urinary 8-OHdG and MDA as biomarkers of oxidative stress related to short-term air pollution exposure.
He, L; Cui, X; Xia, Q; Li, F; Mo, J; Gong, J; Zhang, Y; Zhang, JJ
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