Lending a hand for laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy: the optimal approach?
BACKGROUND: Both minimally invasive surgery (MIS) and open approaches for distal pancreatectomy are acceptable. MIS options include total laparoscopic/robotic (TLR) and hand-assist laparoscopy (HAL). When considering safety profile and specimen quality, the optimal approach is unknown. METHODS: Patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy from 2010-2018 at two major academic institutions were included. Converted procedures were categorized into final approach. Ninety-day perioperative/pathologic outcomes of MIS and open were compared. Subset analyses between TLR vs HAL and HAL vs open were performed. Intent-to-treat analysis was performed. RESULTS: Among 1006 patients, resection was performed by MIS in 35% (n = 352), open in 65% (n = 654). MIS had similar patient comorbidity profile as open but had increased operative time (183 vs 162 min; p < 0.01), lower estimated-blood-loss (EBL; 131 vs 341 mL; p < 0.01), fewer intraoperative blood transfusions (1.4 vs 5%; p < 0.01), shorter LOS (5.2 vs 7.2 days; p < 0.01). Tumor size was smaller (3.2 vs 4.4 cm; p < 0.01) with lower lymph node (LN) yield (14 vs 16; p < 0.01). When comparing HAL (n = 109) to TLR (n = 243), despite increased prior abdominal operations (60 vs 43%; p = 0.008), HAL had shorter operative time (167 vs 191 min; p < 0.01), similar length-of-stay (LOS; 5.4 vs 5.1 days; p = 0.27), and readmission rate (15 vs 13%; p = 0.47). When comparing HAL to open, the advantages of TLR approach persisted including lower EBL (171 vs 342 mL; p < 0.01), and shorter LOS (5.4 vs 7.2 days; p < 0.01). Although HAL had smaller tumors, it had a similar LN yield (16 vs 16; p = 0.80), and higher R0-rate (97 vs 83%; p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Hand-assist laparoscopy is safe and feasible for distal pancreatectomy as operative time, complication profile, lymph node yield, and R0-rates are similar to open procedures, while maintaining the associated the advantages of a total laparoscopic/robotic approach with reduced blood loss and shorter length-of-stay.
Gamboa, AC; Aveson, VG; Zaidi, MY; Lee, RM; Jarnagin, WR; Allen, PJ; Drebin, JA; Peter Kingham, T; DeMatteo, RP; Sarmiento, JM; Russell, MC; Cardona, K; Kooby, DA; D'Angelica, MI; Maithel, SK
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