The Effect of Preexisting and Shoulder-Specific Depression and Anxiety on Patient-Reported Outcomes After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.
BACKGROUND: Few studies have considered the potential effect of depression or anxiety on outcomes after rotator cuff repair. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of a preexisting diagnosis of depression or anxiety, as well as the feeling of depression and anxiety directly related to the shoulder, on the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: This study is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data on patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair and were evaluated by the ASES score preoperatively and at a minimum 12 months postoperatively as part of the senior author's shoulder registry. Preexisting diagnoses of depression and/or anxiety were recorded, and questions from the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index directed at feelings of depression or anxiety related to the shoulder were also evaluated. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare ASES scores between patients with and without anxiety and/or depression. Spearman correlation was used to correlate questions on depression and anxiety with ASES scores. RESULTS: A total of 187 patients (63 females, 124 males; mean age, 58.6 years, SD, 8.7 years) undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were evaluated with a mean follow-up of 47.5 months (SD, 17.4 months; range, 12-77 months). Fifty-three patients (mean age, 60 years; SD, 8.6 years) had preexisting diagnoses of depression and/or anxiety and 134 patients (mean age, 58.1 years; SD, 8.7 years) did not. Patients with depression and/or anxiety had significantly lower preoperative and postoperative ASES scores (60.7 vs 67.8, P = .014; and 74.6 vs 87.1, P = .008, respectively). The change in ASES scores from preoperative to postoperative, however, was not significantly different (18.0 vs 14.9). A higher score of depression or anxiety related to the shoulder had a negative correlation with the preoperative (r = -0.76, P < .0001; and r = -0.732, P < .0001, respectively) and postoperative (r = -0.31, P = .0001; and r = -0.31, P = .0003, respectively) ASES scores, but a positive correlation (r = 0.50, P < .0001; and r = 0.43, P < .0001, respectively) with the change in ASES scores. CONCLUSION: Patients with a history of depression and/or anxiety have lower outcome scores preoperatively and postoperatively; however, they should expect the same amount of relief from arthroscopic rotator cuff repair as those without a history of depression or anxiety. Stronger feelings of depression or anxiety directly related to the shoulder correlated with lower preoperative and postoperative outcome scores, but a greater amount of improvement from surgery. The results from this study suggest that a preexisting diagnosis of depression or anxiety, as well as feelings of depression or anxiety directly related to the shoulder, should be considered during the management of patients with rotator cuff tears.
Lau, BC; Scribani, M; Wittstein, J
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