Opioid and benzodiazepine use during therapeutic hypothermia in encephalopathic neonates.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the use of sedatives and analgesics during therapeutic hypothermia in encephalopathic neonates and assess associations between medication exposure and hospital outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: We identified neonates ≥35 weeks gestational age treated with therapeutic hypothermia at 125 neonatal intensive care units between 2007 and 2015. We compared characteristics and hospital outcomes between unexposed neonates and neonates exposed to opioids and/or benzodiazepines. RESULTS: Opioids were administered to 1 677/2 621 (64%) neonates, and exposure increased from 38% in 2008 to 68% in 2015. Sedation/analgesia varied widely between centers. Opioid-exposed neonates experienced greater durations of respiratory support and were more likely to receive inotropes and inhaled nitric oxide. Mortality during postnatal days 0-3 was lower among opioid-exposed neonates (31/625 [5%]) than unexposed neonates (64/714 [9%]). CONCLUSIONS: Sedation/analgesia during therapeutic hypothermia is prevalent but not uniform across centers. Prospective studies are needed to assess if exposure independently predicts intensity and duration of physiologic support.
Berube, MW; Lemmon, ME; Pizoli, CE; Bidegain, M; Tolia, VN; Cotten, CM; Greenberg, RG
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