Apocynin alters redox signaling in conductance and resistance vessels of spontaneously hypertensive rats.
Chronic treatment with apocynin reduces blood pressure and prevents endothelial dysfunction development in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Mechanisms underlying apocynin effects on SHR remain unclear. Compared to diapocynin and other drugs, apocynin is a weak antioxidant, which suggests that its effects on SHR are associated with other mechanisms besides its antioxidant capacity. Angiotensin (Ang) II regulates NOX, the major reactive oxygen species (ROS) source in the cardiovascular system. We hypothesized that, by inhibiting NOX, apocynin could alter Ang II pressor and vasoconstrictor effects on SHR. We analyzed how Ang II affects blood pressure and vascular reactivity in aorta and mesenteric resistance arteries and evaluated plasma antioxidant capacity, NOX isoforms and subunits, NOS isoforms, AT1 and AT2 receptors expression, ROS production, and NOS activity in apocynin-treated SHR blood vessels (30 mg/Kg/day, p.o.). In SHR, apocynin reduced Ang II pressor effects, increased plasmatic antioxidant capacity, and blunted aortic and mesenteric NOX-dependent oxidants production and NOX2 and p47phox overexpression, which demonstrated that apocynin inhibits NOX in SHR blood vessels. Moreover, apocynin raised plasmatic and aortic nitrate/nitrite levels, maintained NOS activity and eNOS, p-eNOS, nNOS, iNOS, sGC-α, and sGC-β expression in mesenteric bed, diminished AT1 expression in aorta and mesenteric bed, and elevated AT2 expression in SHR aorta. Apocynin increased Ang II vasoconstriction endothelial modulation in SHR resistance arteries. All these results showed that in vivo treatment with apocynin alters several mechanisms that reduce Ang II pressor and vasoconstrictor effects on SHR. Such apocynin effects involve other mechanisms besides vascular ROS modulation, which improves NO availability in SHR vascular cells. These integrated data could help us to understand the promising apocynin activity as an antihypertensive drug that acts differently from the drugs that are currently being used in the clinical setting.
Graton, ME; Potje, SR; Troiano, JA; Vale, GT; Perassa, LA; Nakamune, ACMS; Tirapelli, CR; Bendhack, LM; Antoniali, C
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)