Direct Estimation of Sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum Rapid Diagnostic Test for Active Case Detection in a High-Transmission Community Setting.
Community-based active case detection of malaria parasites with conventional rapid diagnostic tests (cRDTs) is a strategy used most commonly in low-transmission settings. We estimated the sensitivity of this approach in a high-transmission setting in Western Kenya. We tested 3,547 members of 912 households identified in 2013-2014 by index children with (case) and without (control) cRDT-positive malaria. All were tested for Plasmodium falciparum with both a cRDT targeting histidine-rich protein 2 and with an ultrasensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We computed cRDT sensitivity against PCR as the referent, compared prevalence between participant types, and estimated cRDT detectability as a function of PCR-estimated parasite density. Parasite prevalence was 22.9% by cRDTs and 61.5% by PCR. Compared with children aged < 5 years or adults aged > 15 years, geometric mean parasite densities (95% CI) were highest in school-age children aged 5-15 years (8.4 p/uL; 6.6-10.6). The overall sensitivity of cRDT was 36%; among asymptomatic household members, cRDT sensitivity was 25.5% and lowest in adults aged > 15 years (15.8%). When modeled as a function of parasite density, relative to school-age children, the probability of cRDT positivity was reduced in both children aged < 5 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.48; 95% CI: 0.34-0.69) and in adults aged > 15 years (OR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.27-0.47). An HRP2-detecting cRDT had poor sensitivity for active P. falciparum case detection in asymptomatic community members, and sensitivity was lowest in highly prevalent low-density infections and in adults. Future studies can model the incremental effects of high-sensitivity rapid diagnostic tests and the impacts on transmission.
Taylor, SM; Sumner, KM; Freedman, B; Mangeni, JN; Obala, AA; Prudhomme O'Meara, W
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