Lagged versus concurrent changes between burnout and depression symptoms and unique contributions from job demands and job resources.
Burnout and depression pose significant threats to emotional and occupational functioning; however, questions exist over how these 2 conditions are associated with each other over time, and how these are related to underlying job stressors. The job demands-resources model provides a useful framework for understanding how job demands and job resources may lead to burnout, but questions remain about their distinct association with depression symptoms. The current study examined these questions in a sample of 402 nursing workers. The Exhaustion subscale of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depression assessment, and items reflecting job demands and job resources from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire were assessed at baseline; additionally, Oldenburg Burnout Inventory Exhaustion and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depression were assessed over 12 monthly follow-ups. Linear mixed models assessed longitudinal bidirectional associations between burnout and depression in both concurrent and lagged models. Longitudinal models found bidirectional relationships between burnout and depression symptoms over time, with relatively stronger associations for concurrent models relative to lagged models. Job demands and job resources each predicted unique variance in burnout and depression symptoms over time. Results provide evidence that burnout and depression symptoms change in the same direction, in tandem, rather than one condition having a distinctly stronger temporal association over the other. Results also indicate that both job demands and job resources are associated with depression symptoms independent from their association with burnout symptoms. Our results highlight the importance of considering burnout symptoms, depression symptoms, and job stressors concurrently in evaluating worker mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
Hatch, DJ; Potter, GG; Martus, P; Rose, U; Freude, G
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