Deep convolutional neural network applied to the liver imaging reporting and data system (LI-RADS) version 2014 category classification: a pilot study.
PURPOSE: To develop a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) model to categorize multiphase CT and MRI liver observations using the liver imaging reporting and data system (LI-RADS) (version 2014). METHODS: A pre-existing dataset comprising 314 hepatic observations (163 CT, 151 MRI) with corresponding diameters and LI-RADS categories (LR-1-5) assigned in consensus by two LI-RADS steering committee members was used to develop two CNNs: pre-trained network with an input of triple-phase images (training with transfer learning) and custom-made network with an input of quadruple-phase images (training from scratch). The dataset was randomly split into training, validation, and internal test sets (70:15:15 split). The overall accuracy and area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) were assessed for categorizing LR-1/2, LR-3, LR-4, and LR-5. External validation was performed for the model with the better performance on the internal test set using two external datasets (EXT-CT and EXT-MR: 68 and 44 observations, respectively). RESULTS: The transfer learning model outperformed the custom-made model: overall accuracy of 60.4% and AUROCs of 0.85, 0.90, 0.63, 0.82 for LR-1/2, LR-3, LR-4, LR-5, respectively. On EXT-CT, the model had an overall accuracy of 41.2% and AUROCs of 0.70, 0.66, 0.60, 0.76 for LR-1/2, LR-3, LR-4, LR-5, respectively. On EXT-MR, the model had an overall accuracy of 47.7% and AUROCs of 0.88, 0.74, 0.69, 0.79 for LR-1/2, LR-3, LR-4, LR-5, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study shows the feasibility of CNN for assigning LI-RADS categories from a relatively small dataset but highlights the challenges of model development and validation.
Yamashita, R; Mittendorf, A; Zhu, Z; Fowler, KJ; Santillan, CS; Sirlin, CB; Bashir, MR; Do, RKG
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