Intraoperative renal resistive index threshold as an acute kidney injury biomarker.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The lag in creatinine-mediated diagnosis of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) may be impeding the development of renoprotection therapies. Postoperative renal resistive index (RRI) measured by transabdominal Doppler ultrasound is a promising early AKI biomarker. RRI measured intraoperatively by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is available even earlier but is less evaluated. Therefore, we conducted an assessment of intraoperative RRI as an AKI biomarker using previously reported post-renal insult thresholds. DESIGN: Retrospective convenience sample. SETTING: Intraoperative. PATIENTS: 180 adult cardiac surgical patients between July 2013 and July 2014. INTERVENTION: None. MEASUREMENTS: Pre- and post-cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) RRI thresholds, measured using intraoperative TEE, exceeding 0.74 or 0.79 were used to evaluate for an association with KDIGO AKI risk using the Chi-square test. Other consensus AKI criteria (AKIN, RIFLE) were similarly evaluated. Additional t-test analyses examined the relationship of pre- and pre-to-post (delta) CPB RRI with AKI. MAIN RESULTS: Post-CPB RRI for 99 patients included 36 and 23 with values exceeding 0.74 and 0.79, respectively. Analyses confirmed associations of both RRI thresholds with all consensus AKI definitions (0.74; KDIGO: p = 0.05, AKIN: p = 0.03, RIFLE: p = 0.03, 0.79; KDIGO: p = 0.002, AKIN: p = 0.001, RIFLE: p = 0.004). In contrast, pre-CPB and pre-to post-CPB RRI were not associated with AKI. CONCLUSIONS: RRI obtained intraoperatively in cardiac surgery patients, assessed using previously reported thresholds, is highly associated with AKI and warrants further evaluation as a promising "earliest" AKI biomarker. These significant findings suggest that RRI assessment should be included in the standard intraoperative TEE exam.
Cherry, AD; Hauck, JN; Andrew, BY; Li, Y-J; Privratsky, JR; Kartha, LD; Nicoara, A; Thompson, A; Mathew, JP; Stafford-Smith, M
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