Sleep Breathing Disorders in Heart Failure.
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), including obstructive sleep apnea, central sleep apnea (CSA), and Cheyne-Stokes respiration, is common in patients with heart failure (HF) and associated with lower left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), increased arrhythmia burden, and increased mortality. Continuous positive airway pressure therapy improves short-term and long-term outcomes in HF patients. Adaptive servoventilation (ASV) therapy in patients with low-EF HF with predominant CSA is not recommended. Ongoing trials are evaluating whether ASV will have a role in SDB treatment. Phrenic nerve stimulation is an emerging treatment option that has shown promising outcomes. All HF patients should be screened for SDB.
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