Global spinal deformity from the upper cervical perspective. What is "Abnormal" in the upper cervical spine?
Hypothesis: Reciprocal changes in the upper cervical spine correlate with adult TL deformity modifiers. Design: This was a retrospective review. Introduction: The upper cervical spine has remarkable adaptability to wide ranges of thoracolumbar (TL) deformity. Methods: Patients >18 years with adult spinal deformity (ASD) and complete radiographic data at baseline (BL) and 1 year were identified. Patients were grouped into component types of the Roussouly classification system (Type 1: Pelvic incidence [PI] <45° and lumbar lordosis [LL] apex below L4; Type 2: PI <45° and LL apex above L4; Type 3:45°<65°; and Type 4: PI >65°). Patients were categorized by increasing severity of Schwab modifiers at BL (0, +, and ++) and further grouped by regional malalignment moving cranially (P: pelvic only; LP: lumbopelvic; TL: thoracic and LP; C: subaxial and TL). Analysis of variance and Pearson's r assessed changes in BL upper cervical parameters (C0-2, C0 slope, McGregor's Slope [MGS], and CBVA) across groups. Results: A total of 343 ASD patients were analyzed. When grouped by BL Schwab and Roussouly, Group P had the lowest BL disability compared to other Groups, while Roussouley Type 1 correlated with higher BL disability compared to Type 2. Moving cranially up the spine, Group P, Group LP, and Group TL did not differ in C0-2 angle, C0 slope, MGS, or CBVA. Group C had a significantly smaller C0-C2, and more negative MGS, C0 slope, and CBVA than noncervical groups. Type 1 trended slightly higher CBVA and MGS than types 2-4, but no differences in cervical lordosis, C0-C2, or C0S were found. MGS (r = -0.131, P = 0.015), CBVA (r = -0.473, P < 0.001), and C0S (r = -0.099, P = 0.042) correlated most strongly with sagittal vertical axis (SVA) compared to other Schwab modifiers. We found SVA > 34 mm predicted a 1 unit (°°) decrease in MGS (odds ratio [OR]: 0.970 [0.948-0.993], P = 0.010), while cervical SVA >51 mm predicted a 1 unit increase in MGS (OR: 1.25 [1.12-1.38], P < 0.001). Conclusions: Our study suggests that upper cervical alignment remains relatively stable through most broad variations of adult TL deformity. Changes in SVA correlated most with upper cervical changes.
Passias, PG; Alas, H; Lafage, R; Diebo, BG; Chern, I; Ames, CP; Park, P; Than, KD; Daniels, AH; Hamilton, DK; Burton, DC; Hart, RA; Bess, S; Line, BG; Klineberg, EO; Shaffrey, CI; Smith, JS; Schwab, FJ; Lafage, V
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)