Identifying trajectories of antenatal depression in women and their associations with gestational age and neonatal anthropometry: A prospective cohort study.
OBJECTIVE:The present study sought to determine the longitudinal trajectories of antenatal depression and examine their associations with birth outcomes. METHOD:926 healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies within 14 weeks of gestation participated in this prospective cohort study. Women completed a sociodemographic and medical questionnaire and the locally-validated Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in their first, second, and third trimesters, and prior to parturition. Gestational age and neonatal weight, length, and head circumference were recorded at birth. Group-based trajectory modelling characterized trajectories of antenatal depression. Analyses of covariance and covariate-adjusted linear regressions identified associations between trajectories and neonatal outcomes. RESULTS:Four distinct non-fluctuating trajectories of depressive symptoms were identified, with 9% women suffering from probable clinical depression throughout the pregnancy. Women in this persistently-moderate depression trajectory delivered 2.48 days earlier than in other trajectories; a one-point increase in EPDS scores was associated with an adjusted reduction of 5.82 g in birthweight. CONCLUSIONS:Although meaningful trajectories were identified, no clinically relevant associations between persistently-moderate depressive symptoms with neonatal outcomes were found. The stability of these trajectories, however, suggests the importance of screening for depressive symptoms early in pregnancy to identify women who may benefit from greater formal and informal support.
Lim, HA; Chua, T-E; Malhotra, R; Allen, JC; Teo, I; Chern, BSM; Tan, KH; Chen, H
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