TRIal to slow the Progression Of Diabetes (TRIPOD): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial using wireless technology and incentives.


Journal Article

BACKGROUND:The outcomes for those with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Singapore are poor. In this TRIal to slow the Progression Of Diabetes (TRIPOD), we will evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a comprehensive diabetes management package (DMP), with or without a financial incentives program, M-POWER Rewards, in efforts to improve HbA1c levels for individuals with T2DM. METHODS/DESIGN:TRIPOD is a randomized, open-label, controlled, multi-center, superiority trial with three parallel arms: (1) usual care only, (2) usual care with DMP, and (3) usual care with DMP plus M-POWER Rewards. A total of 339 adults with sub-optimally controlled T2DM (self-reported HbA1c 7.5-11.0%) will be block randomized according to a 1:1:1 allocation ratio to the three arms. The primary outcome is mean change in HbA1c level at Month 12 from baseline. Secondary outcomes include mean change in HbA1c level at Months 6, 18, and 24; mean changes at Months 6, 12, 18, and 24 in weight, blood pressure, and self-reported physical activity, weight monitoring, blood glucose monitoring, medication adherence, diabetes self-management, sleep quality, work productivity and daily activity impairment, and health utility index; and proportion of participants initiating insulin treatment by Months 6, 12, 18, and 24. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios will be computed based on costs per improvement in HbA1c at Month 12 and converted to cost per quality-adjusted life year gained. DISCUSSION:The TRIPOD study will present insights about the long-term cost-effectiveness and financial viability of the interventions and the potential for integrating within usual care. TRIAL, NCT03800680. Registered on 11 January 2019.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Lim, RSM; Gardner, DSL; Bee, YM; Cheung, YB; Bairavi, J; Gandhi, M; Goh, S-Y; Ho, ETL; Lin, X; Tan, NC; Tay, TL; Finkelstein, EA

Published Date

  • November 28, 2019

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 20 / 1

Start / End Page

  • 650 -

PubMed ID

  • 31779678

Pubmed Central ID

  • 31779678

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1745-6215

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1745-6215

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1186/s13063-019-3749-x


  • eng