Ophthalmic Drug Delivery Using Iontophoresis: Recent Clinical Applications.
Iontophoresis is a noninvasive delivery system designed to overcome barriers to ocular penetration of topical ophthalmic medications by employing a low-amplitude electrical current to promote the migration of a charged drug substance across biological membranes. Trans-scleral iontophoresis of dexamethasone phosphate has demonstrated dramatically increased intraocular concentrations of dexamethasone in rabbit ocular tissues compared with topical instillation, including 50- to 100-fold greater aqueous humor concentrations. Methods:
This article reviews available data on recent clinical applications of iontophoretic ophthalmic drug delivery. Results:
The EyeGate II delivery system (EGDS) is a trans-scleral iontophoresis system that has been used in conjunction with EGP-437, a proprietary-charged formulation of dexamethasone phosphate for iontophoretic delivery. In patients with noninfectious anterior uveitis, EGP-437, delivered through 2 iontophoretic treatments using the EGDS, demonstrated similar efficacy to topical prednisolone acetate 1% eye drops instilled 8 times daily over 28 days, suggesting the potential to decrease or eliminate the need for daily dosing of topical steroids in this patient population. Other applications for EGP-437 delivered through the EGDS that have been explored in clinical trials include treatment of dry eye, postsurgical inflammation and pain, and scleritis. In addition, transcorneal iontophoresis has been used outside of the United States to enhance riboflavin penetration in patients undergoing corneal cross-linking as therapy for progressive keratoconus. Conclusions:
The reviewed studies demonstrate the feasibility of using iontophoresis to enhance drug delivery to ocular tissues and support the potential of this noninvasive technique across a range of ophthalmic indications.
Perez, VL; Wirostko, B; Korenfeld, M; From, S; Raizman, M
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