Choline attenuates inflammatory hyperalgesia activating nitric oxide/cGMP/ATP-sensitive potassium channels pathway.
New findings on neural regulation of immunity are allowing the design of novel pharmacological strategies to control inflammation and nociception. Herein, we report that choline, a 7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChRs) agonist, prevents carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia without affecting inflammatory parameters (neutrophil migration or cytokine/chemokines production) or inducing sedation or even motor impairment. Choline also attenuates prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2)-induced hyperalgesia via α7nAChR activation and this antinociceptive effect was abrogated by administration of LNMMA (a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), ODQ (an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase; cGMP), andglibenclamide(an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive potassium channels). Furthermore, choline attenuates long-lasting Complete Freund's Adjuvant and incision-induced hyperalgesia suggesting its therapeutic potential to treat pain in rheumatoid arthritis or post-operative recovery, respectively. Our results suggest that choline modulates inflammatory hyperalgesia by activating the nitric oxide/cGMP/ATP-sensitive potassium channels without interfering in inflammatory events, and could be used in persistent pain conditions.
Kusuda, R; Carreira, EU; Ulloa, L; Cunha, FQ; Kanashiro, A; Cunha, TM
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