Acute Exposure to Permethrin Modulates Behavioral Functions, Redox, and Bioenergetics Parameters and Induces DNA Damage and Cell Death in Larval Zebrafish.
Permethrin (PM) is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide widely used as domestic repellent. Damage effects to nontarget organisms have been reported, particularly in the early stages of development. Studies indicate redox unbalance as secondary PM effect. Therefore, our goal was to investigate the acute PM effects on larval zebrafish. Larvae (6 days postfertilization) were exposed to PM (25-600 μg/L) during 24 hours, and 50% lethal concentration was estimated. For subsequent assays, the sublethal PM concentrations of 25 and 50 μg/L were used. PM increased anxiety-like behaviors according to the Novel Tank and Light-Dark tests. At the molecular level, PM induced increased ROS, which may be related to the increased lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and apoptosis detected in PM-exposed organisms. In parallel, upregulation of the antioxidant system was detected after PM exposure, with increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase activities, and thiol levels. The increased of Nrf2 target genes and the activation of an electrophile response element-driven reporter Tg(EPRE:LUC-EGFP) suggest that the Nrf2 pathway can mediate a fast response to PM, leading to antioxidant amplification. By using high-resolution respirometry, we found that exposure to PM decreased the oxygen consumption in all respiratory stages, disrupting the oxidative phosphorylation and inhibiting the electron transfer system, leading to decrease in bioenergetics capacity. In addition, PM led to increases of residual oxygen consumption and changes in substrate control ratio. Glucose metabolism seems to be affected by PM, with increased lactate dehydrogenase and decreased citrate synthase activities. Taken together, our results demonstrated the adverse effects of acute sublethal PM concentrations during larval development in zebrafish, causing apparent mitochondrial dysfunction, indicating a potential mechanism to redox unbalance and oxidative stress, which may be linked to the detected cell death and alterations in normal behavior patterns caused by acute PM exposure.
Nunes, MEM; Schimith, LE; da Costa-Silva, DG; Lopes, AR; Leandro, LP; Martins, IK; de Mello, RS; Hartmann, DD; de Carvalho, NR; da Rosa, PC; Trevisan, R; Di Giulio, RT; Posser, T; Franco, JL
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