Modulating Bioglass Concentration in 3D Printed Poly(propylene fumarate) Scaffolds for Post-Printing Functionalization with Bioactive Functional Groups.
Poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) has shown potential for the treatment of bone defects as it can be 3D printed into scaffolds to suit patient-specific needs with strength comparable to that of bone. However, the lack of specific cell attachment and osteogenic signaling moieties have limited their utility as it is necessary to provide these signals to aid in bone tissue formation. To address this issue and provide a platform for functionalization, Bioglass (∼1-2 μm) microparticles have been incorporated into PPF to create a 3D printable resin with concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 wt %. The zero-shear viscosity of PPF-Bioglass resins increased proportionally from 0 to 2.5 wt % Bioglass, with values of 0.22 and 0.34 Pa·s, respectively. At higher Bioglass concentrations, 5 and 10 wt %, the resin viscosity increased to 0.44 and 1.31 Pa·s, exhibiting a 2- and 6-fold increase from the 0 wt % Bioglass resin. Despite this increase in viscosity, all resins remained printable with no print failures. In addition, the surface available Bioglass can tether catechol containing molecules for postprinting functionalization. Analysis of PPF-Bioglass functionalization using a catechol dye analyte shows functionalization increases with Bioglass concentration, up to 157 nmol/cm2, and demonstrates it is possible to modulate functionalization. This presents a versatile and highly translationally relevant strategy to functionalize 3D printed scaffolds post printing with a diverse array of functional species.
Kleinfehn, AP; Lammel Lindemann, JA; Razvi, A; Philip, P; Richardson, K; Nettleton, K; Becker, ML; Dean, D
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