Selenomethionine exposure affects chondrogenic differentiation and bone formation in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).
Excess selenium entering the aquatic environment from anthropogenic activities has been associated with developmental abnormalities in fish including skeletal deformities of the head and spine. However, mechanisms of this developmental toxicity have not been well-characterized. In this study, Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos were exposed to seleno-l-methionine (Se-Met) in a range of concentrations. Gene expression was evaluated for sex-determining region Y (SRY)-related box (Sox9a and Sox9b), runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and melatonin receptor (Mtr). Alterations in the length of Meckel's cartilage, tail curvature, and decreased calcification were observed in skeletal stains at 10- and 22-days post-fertilization (dpf). Embryonic exposure of Osterix-mCherry transgenic medaka resulted in fewer teeth. Sox9a and Sox9b were up-regulated, while Runx2 and Mtr were down-regulated by Se-Met prior to hatch. Whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH) localized gene expression to areas observed to be affected in vivo. In addition, Se-Met exposures of a Mtr morpholino (Mtr-MO) as well as Luzindole exposed embryos developed similar skeletal malformations, supporting involvement of Mtr. These findings demonstrate that Se-Met modulates expression of key genes involved in chondrogenic differentiation and bone formation during development.
Wang, H; Chen, H; Chernick, M; Li, D; Ying, G-G; Yang, J; Zheng, N; Xie, L; Hinton, DE; Dong, W
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