Depressive symptoms associated with physical health problems in midlife women: A longitudinal study.
BACKGROUND:It is unclear if the relationship between depression and physical health problems in women is related to age, reproductive stage, obesity or socio-demographic risk factors. METHODS:Longitudinal data were obtained every 6 months for 36 months in 264 midlife African American, Caucasian and Latina women who began the study as healthy regularly menstruating 40 to 50-year-olds; 75 transitioned to peri- or post-menopause by 36 months. Scores of 16 or higher on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale were used to estimate depression risk. RESULTS:Depression risk was 28% at study initiation and 25% at 36 months. Significantly more women at risk for depression were unemployed, obese, or hypertensive. Women at risk were more likely to become peri- or post-menopausal during the study period. A higher percentage (38%) of overweight and obese women had CES-D scores ≥ 16 compared to normal weight women (23%; p < .001). Over half (58%) of the 73 women at higher depression risk at the initial visit reported a health problem or chronic illness at 36 months, compared to only 36% of the 191 women with CES-D scores <16 (p = .001). LIMITATIONS:This was a secondary analysis of data from a relatively healthy sample of women in the decade before menopause. Chronic illness was self-reported and the CES-D is a screening tool for depressive symptoms rather than a clinical diagnostic tool. CONCLUSIONS:Health care providers may be underestimating the impact of unemployment on depressive symptoms, obesity and chronic health problems in midlife women.
Jones, HJ; Minarik, PA; Gilliss, CL; Lee, KA
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