Implementation of a billable transitional care model for stroke patients: the COMPASS study.
(Journal Article;Multicenter Study;Pragmatic Clinical Trial)
BACKGROUND: The COMprehensive Post-Acute Stroke Services (COMPASS) pragmatic trial compared the effectiveness of comprehensive transitional care (COMPASS-TC) versus usual care among stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients discharged home from North Carolina hospitals. We evaluated implementation of COMPASS-TC in 20 hospitals randomized to the intervention using the RE-AIM framework. METHODS: We evaluated hospital-level Adoption of COMPASS-TC; patient Reach (meeting transitional care management requirements of timely telephone and face-to-face follow-up); Implementation using hospital quality measures (concurrent enrollment, two-day telephone follow-up, 14-day clinic visit scheduling); and hospital-level sustainability (Maintenance). Effectiveness compared 90-day physical function (Stroke Impact Scale-16), between patients receiving COMPASS-TC versus not. Associations between hospital and patient characteristics with Implementation and Reach measures were estimated with mixed logistic regression models. RESULTS: Adoption: Of 95 eligible hospitals, 41 (43%) participated in the trial. Of the 20 hospitals randomized to the intervention, 19 (95%) initiated COMPASS-TC. Reach: A total of 24% (656/2751) of patients enrolled received a billable TC intervention, ranging from 6 to 66% across hospitals. IMPLEMENTATION: Of eligible patients enrolled, 75.9% received two-day calls (or two attempts) and 77.5% were scheduled/offered clinic visits. Most completed visits (78% of 975) occurred within 14 days. Effectiveness: Physical function was better among patients who attended a 14-day visit versus those who did not (adjusted mean difference: 3.84, 95% CI 1.42-6.27, p = 0.002). Maintenance: Of the 19 adopting hospitals, 14 (74%) sustained COMPASS-TC. CONCLUSIONS: COMPASS-TC implementation varied widely. The greatest challenge was reaching patients because of system difficulties maintaining consistent delivery of follow-up visits and patient preferences to pursue alternate post-acute care. Receiving COMPASS-TC was associated with better functional status. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02588664. Registered 28 October 2015.
Gesell, SB; Bushnell, CD; Jones, SB; Coleman, SW; Levy, SM; Xenakis, JG; Lutz, BJ; Bettger, JP; Freburger, J; Halladay, JR; Johnson, AM; Kucharska-Newton, AM; Mettam, LH; Pastva, AM; Psioda, MA; Radman, MD; Rosamond, WD; Sissine, ME; Halls, J; Duncan, PW
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