Biomarkers and vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage from the rupture of a saccular aneurysm is a devastating neurological disease that has a high morbidity and mortality not only from the initial hemorrhage, but also from the delayed complications, such as cerebral vasospasm. Cerebral vasospasm can lead to delayed ischemic injury 1 to 2 weeks after the initial hemorrhage. Although the pathophysiology of vasospasm has been described for decades, the molecular basis remains poorly understood. With the many advances in the past decade in the development of sensitive molecular biological techniques, imaging, biochemical purification, and protein identification, new insights are beginning to reveal the etiology of vasospasm. These findings will not only help to identify markers of vasospasm and prognostic outcome, but will also yield potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of this disease. This review focuses on the methods available for the identification of biological markers of vasospasm and their limitations, the current understanding as to the utility and prognostic significance of identified biomarkers, the utility of these biomarkers in predicting vasospasm and outcome, and future directions of research in this field.
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)