Ropivacaine and Ketorolac Wound Infusion for Post-Cesarean Delivery Analgesia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of wound infusion with ropivacaine plus ketorolac compared with placebo for post-cesarean delivery analgesia in women who received a multimodal analgesic regimen including intrathecal morphine. METHODS: In a randomized double-blind study, women undergoing scheduled cesarean delivery under spinal or combined spinal epidural anesthesia were randomized to wound infusion with ropivacaine 0.2% plus ketorolac, or saline placebo using an elastometric pump for 48 hours. The primary outcome was pain score with movement at 24 hours after surgery (0-10 scale, 0=no pain and 10=worst possible pain). Secondary outcomes included pain scores at rest at 24 hours, pain scores at rest and with movement at 2 and 48 hours, opioid consumption, and time to first rescue analgesic. A sample size of 35 per group (n=70) was planned. RESULTS: From November 8, 2016, to May 17, 2019, 247 women were screened, and 71 completed the study per protocol: 38 in the placebo group and 33 in the ropivacaine plus ketorolac group. Patient demographics and intraoperative characteristics were comparable between the groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in the primary outcome of pain score with movement at 24 hours (difference in median score 0, 95% CI -1 to 2, P=.94). There were also no significant differences between the placebo and ropivacaine plus ketorolac groups in pain scores at other time points, in total opioid consumption (difference in median consumption -12.5 mg, 95% CI -30 to 5, P=.11), or in time to rescue analgesics (median [interquartile range] 660 [9-1,496] vs 954 [244-1,710] minutes, hazard ratio 0.69, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.17, P=.16). CONCLUSION: There was no benefit of wound infusion with ropivacaine and ketorolac in women who received intrathecal morphine and a multimodal analgesic regimen. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02829944. FUNDING SOURCE: The study was supported in part by Avanos Medical Inc.
Barney, EZ; Pedro, CD; Gamez, BH; Fuller, ME; Dominguez, JE; Habib, AS
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