Broken detailed balance at mesoscopic scales in active biological systems.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Systems in thermodynamic equilibrium are not only characterized by time-independent macroscopic properties, but also satisfy the principle of detailed balance in the transitions between microscopic configurations. Living systems function out of equilibrium and are characterized by directed fluxes through chemical states, which violate detailed balance at the molecular scale. Here we introduce a method to probe for broken detailed balance and demonstrate how such nonequilibrium dynamics are manifest at the mesosopic scale. The periodic beating of an isolated flagellum from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exhibits probability flux in the phase space of shapes. With a model, we show how the breaking of detailed balance can also be quantified in stationary, nonequilibrium stochastic systems in the absence of periodic motion. We further demonstrate such broken detailed balance in the nonperiodic fluctuations of primary cilia of epithelial cells. Our analysis provides a general tool to identify nonequilibrium dynamics in cells and tissues.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Battle, C; Broedersz, CP; Fakhri, N; Geyer, VF; Howard, J; Schmidt, CF; MacKintosh, FC

Published Date

  • April 2016

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 352 / 6285

Start / End Page

  • 604 - 607

PubMed ID

  • 27126047

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC8164727

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1095-9203

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0036-8075

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1126/science.aac8167


  • eng