Results from an international phase 2 study of the anti-CD22 immunotoxin moxetumomab pasudotox in relapsed or refractory childhood B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
BACKGROUND: In a multicenter phase 1 study of children with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), moxetumomab pasudotox, an anti-CD22 immunotoxin, demonstrated a manageable safety profile and preliminary evidence of clinical activity. A phase 2 study further evaluated efficacy. PROCEDURE: This international, multicenter, phase 2 study enrolled children with relapsed/refractory B-cell precursor ALL who received moxetumomab pasudotox 40 µg/kg intravenously every other day, for six doses per 21-day cycle. The primary objective was to evaluate the complete response (CR) rate. Secondary objectives included safety, pharmacokinetics, and immunogenicity evaluations. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients (median age, 10 years) were enrolled at 16 sites; 30 received study drug and were evaluable for safety; 28 were evaluable for response. The objective response rate was 28.6%, with three patients (10.7%) achieving morphologic CR, and five patients (17.9%) achieving partial response. Disease progression occurred in 11 patients (39.3%). Ten patients (33.3%) experienced at least one treatment-related serious adverse event, including capillary leak syndrome (CLS; n = 6), hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS; n = 4), and treatment-related death (n = 1) from pulmonary edema. No differences were observed in inflammatory markers in patients who did or did not develop CLS or HUS. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a signal for clinical activity, this phase 2 study was terminated at interim analysis for a CR rate that did not reach the stage 1 target. Preclinical data suggest enhanced efficacy of moxetumomab pasudotox via continuous infusion or in combination regimens; thus, further studies designed to optimize the efficacy and safety of moxetumomab pasudotox in pediatric ALL may be warranted.
Shah, NN; Bhojwani, D; August, K; Baruchel, A; Bertrand, Y; Boklan, J; Dalla-Pozza, L; Dennis, R; Hijiya, N; Locatelli, F; Martin, PL; Mechinaud, F; Moppett, J; Rheingold, SR; Schmitt, C; Trippett, TM; Liang, M; Balic, K; Li, X; Vainshtein, I; Yao, NS; Pastan, I; Wayne, AS
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