Right Ventricular Abnormalities on Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients With Sarcoidosis.
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the prevalence on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) of right ventricular (RV) systolic dysfunction and RV late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), their determinants, and their influences on long-term adverse outcomes in patients with sarcoidosis. BACKGROUND: In patients with sarcoidosis, RV abnormalities have been described on many imaging modalities. On CMR, RV abnormalities include RV systolic dysfunction quantified as an abnormal right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF), and RV LGE. METHODS: Consecutive patients with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis who underwent CMR for suspected cardiac involvement were studied. They were followed for 2 endpoints: all-cause death, and a composite arrhythmic endpoint of sudden cardiac death or significant ventricular arrhythmia. RESULTS: Among 290 patients, RV systolic dysfunction (RVEF <40% in men and <45% in women) and RV LGE were present in 35 (12.1%) and 16 (5.5%), respectively. The median follow-up time was 3.2 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.6 to 5.7 years) for all-cause death and 3.0 years (IQR: 1.4 to 5.5 years) for the arrhythmic endpoint. On Cox proportional hazards regression multivariable analyses, only RVEF was independently associated with all-cause death (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.05 for every 1% decrease; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01 to 1.09; p = 0.022) after adjustment for left ventricular EF, left ventricular LGE extent, and the presence of RV LGE. RVEF was not associated with the arrhythmic endpoint (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.96 to 1.06; p = 0.67). Conversely, RV LGE was not associated with all-cause death (HR: 2.78; 95% CI: 0.36 to 21.66; p = 0.33), while it was independently associated with the arrhythmic endpoint (HR: 5.43; 95% CI: 1.25 to 23.47; p = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: In this study of patients with sarcoidosis, RV systolic dysfunction and RV LGE had distinct prognostic associations; RV systolic dysfunction but not RV LGE was independently associated with all-cause death, whereas RV LGE but not RV systolic dysfunction was independently associated with sudden cardiac death or significant ventricular arrhythmia. These findings may indicate distinct implications for the management of RV abnormalities in sarcoidosis.
Velangi, PS; Chen, K-HA; Kazmirczak, F; Okasha, O; von Wald, L; Roukoz, H; Farzaneh-Far, A; Markowitz, J; Nijjar, PS; Bhargava, M; Perlman, D; Akçakaya, M; Shenoy, C
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