A journey from microenvironment to macroenvironment: The role of metaflammation and epigenetic changes in cardiorenal disease
Chronic non-communicable diseases have become a pandemic public problem in the 21st century, causing enormous burden on the economy, health and quality of life of societies. The role of a chronic inflammatory state in the pathogenesis of chronic disease has been more comprehensively recognized by recent findings. The new paradigm 'metaflammation' focuses on metabolism-induced (high fat or fructose-based diet or excessive calorie intake) chronic inflammation. There is a close correlation between the increased incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and chronic heart failure with both increased inflammatory marker levels and western-type diet. In this review we describe the concept of metaflammation, its role in the development of CKD and chronic heart disease, the molecular and signalling pathways involved and the therapeutic consequences.
Kanbay, M; Yerlikaya, A; Sag, AA; Ortiz, A; Kuwabara, M; Covic, A; Wiecek, A; Stenvinkel, P; Afsar, B
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