Circulating tumor cell-derived organoids: Current challenges and promises in medical research and precision medicine.
Traditional 2D cell cultures do not accurately recapitulate tumor heterogeneity, and insufficient human cell lines are available. Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models more closely mimic clinical tumor heterogeneity, but are not useful for high-throughput drug screening. Recently, patient-derived organoid cultures have emerged as a novel technique to fill this critical need. Organoids maintain tumor tissue heterogeneity and drug-resistance responses, and thus are useful for high-throughput drug screening. Among various biological tissues used to produce organoid cultures, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are promising, due to relative ease of ascertainment. CTC-derived organoids could help to acquire relevant genetic and epigenetic information about tumors in real time, and screen and test promising drugs. This could reduce the need for tissue biopsies, which are painful and may be difficult depending on the tumor location. In this review, we have focused on advances in CTC isolation and organoid culture methods, and their potential applications in disease modeling and precision medicine.
Praharaj, PP; Bhutia, SK; Nagrath, S; Bitting, RL; Deep, G
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