Syntaxin 6-mediated exosome secretion regulates enzalutamide resistance in prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer (PCa) deaths are typically the result of metastatic castration-resistant PCa (mCRPC). Recently, enzalutamide (Enz), an oral androgen receptor inhibitor, was approved for treating patients with mCRPC. Invariably, all PCa patients eventually develop resistance against Enz. Therefore, novel strategies aimed at overcoming Enz resistance are needed to improve the survival of PCa patients. The role of exosomes in drug resistance has not been fully elucidated in PCa. Therefore, we set out to better understand the exosome's role in the mechanism underlying Enz-resistant PCa. Results showed that Enz-resistant PCa cells (C4-2B, CWR-R1, and LNCaP) secreted significantly higher amounts of exosomes (2-4 folds) compared to Enz-sensitive counterparts. Inhibition of exosome biogenesis in resistant cells by GW4869 and dimethyl amiloride strongly decreased their cell viability. Mechanistic studies revealed upregulation of syntaxin 6 as well as its increased colocalization with CD63 in Enz-resistant PCa cells compared to Enz-sensitive cells. Syntaxin 6 knockdown by specific small interfering RNAs in Enz-resistant PCa cells (C4-2B and CWR-R1) resulted in reduced cell number and increased cell death in the presence of Enz. Furthermore, syntaxin 6 knockdown significantly reduced the exosome secretion in both Enz-resistant C4-2B and CWR-R1 cells. The Cancer Genome Atlas analysis showed increased syntaxin 6 expressions associated with higher Gleason score and decreased progression-free survival in PCa patients. Importantly, IHC analysis showed higher syntaxin 6 expression in cancer tissues from Enz-treated patients compared to Enz naïve patients. Overall, syntaxin 6 plays an important role in the secretion of exosomes and increased survival of Enz-resistant PCa cells.
Peak, TC; Panigrahi, GK; Praharaj, PP; Su, Y; Shi, L; Chyr, J; Rivera-Chávez, J; Flores-Bocanegra, L; Singh, R; Vander Griend, DJ; Oberlies, NH; Kerr, BA; Hemal, A; Bitting, RL; Deep, G
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)