Feasibility of combining serial smartphone single-lead electrocardiograms for the diagnosis of ST-elevation myocardial infarction.
BACKGROUND: The rate-limiting step in STEMI diagnosis often is the availability of a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and its interpretation. The potential may exist to speed the availability of 12-lead ECG information by using commonly available mobile technologies. We sought to test whether combining serial smartphone single-lead ECGs to create a virtual 12-lead ECG can accurately diagnose STEMI. METHODS: Consenting patients presenting with symptoms consistent with a possible STEMI had contemporaneous standard 12-lead and smartphone '12-lead equivalent' ECG (produced by electronically combining serial single-lead ECGs) recordings obtained. Matched ECGs were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively by a panel of blinded readers and classified as STEMI/STEMI equivalent (LBBB), Not-STEMI, or uninterpretable. Interpretable ECG pairs were graded as showing good, fair, or poor correlation. RESULTS: Two hundred four subjects (age = 60 years, males = 57%, STEMI activation = 45%) were enrolled from 5 international sites. Smartphone ECG quality was graded as good in 151 (74.0%), fair in 32 (15.7%), poor in 8 (3.9%), and uninterpretable in 13 (6.4%). A STEMI/STEMI equivalent diagnosis was identified by standard 12-lead ECG in 57/204 (27.9%) recordings. For all interpretable pairs of smartphone ECGs compared with standard ECGs (n = 190), the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for STEMI/STEMI equivalent by smartphone were 0.89, 0.84, 0.70 and 0.95, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A '12-lead equivalent' ECG obtained from multiple serial single-lead ECGs from a smartphone can identify STEMI with good correlation to a standard 12-lead ECG. This technology holds promise to improve outcomes in STEMI by enhancing the reach and speed of diagnosis and thereby early treatment.
Muhlestein, JB; Anderson, JL; Bethea, CF; Severance, HW; Mentz, RJ; Barsness, GW; Barbagelata, A; Albert, D; Le, VT; Bunch, TJ; Yanowitz, F; May, HT; Chisum, B; Ronnow, BS; Muhlestein, JB; Duke University Cooperative Cardiovascular Society (DUCCS) investigators,
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