Combining multiple features for error detection and its application in brain-computer interface.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


Brain-computer interface (BCI) is an assistive technology that conveys users' intentions by decoding various brain activities and translating them into control commands, without the need of verbal instructions and/or physical interactions. However, errors existing in BCI systems affect their performance greatly, which in turn confines the development and application of BCI technology. It has been demonstrated viable to extract error potential from electroencephalography recordings.


This study proposed a new approach of fusing multiple-channel features from temporal, spectral, and spatial domains through two times of dimensionality reduction based on neural network. 26 participants (13 males, mean age = 28.8 ± 5.4, range 20-37) took part in the study, who engaged in a P300 speller task spelling cued words from a 36-character matrix. In order to evaluate the generalization ability across subjects, the data from 16 participants were used for training and the rest for testing.


The total classification accuracy with combination of features is 76.7 %. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and area under ROC curve (AUC) further indicate the superior performance of the combination of features over any single features in error detection. The average AUC reaches 0.7818 with combined features, while 0.7270, 0.6376, 0.7330 with single temporal, spectral, and spatial features respectively.


The proposed method combining multiple-channel features from temporal, spectral, and spatial domain has better classification performance than any individual feature alone. It has good generalization ability across subject and provides a way of improving error detection, which could serve as promising feedbacks to promote the performance of BCI systems.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Tong, J; Lin, Q; Xiao, R; Ding, L

Published Date

  • February 2016

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 15 /

Start / End Page

  • 17 -

PubMed ID

  • 26846163

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC4743193

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1475-925X

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1475-925X

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1186/s12938-016-0134-9


  • eng