Characteristics of Eyes With Good Visual Acuity at 5 Years After Initiation of Treatment for Age-Related Macular Degeneration but Not Receiving Treatment From Years 3 to 5: Post Hoc Analysis of the CATT Randomized Clinical Trial.
(Journal Article;Multicenter Study)
Importance: Identifying the characteristics of eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) that maintain good vision without anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment for at least 3 years after management, as occurred in the Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT), may have prognostic importance and help in understanding the disease and its treatment. Objectives: To ascertain the characteristics of eyes in the CATT that retained good vision despite receiving no therapy for 3 years after release from the 2-year CATT treatment protocol. Design, Setting and Participants: This case-control study analyzed the baseline and follow-up characteristics of eyes with nAMD that were enrolled in the CATT from 43 US clinical centers between February 20, 2008, and December 9, 2009. After initial randomization to 1 of 4 treatment groups (ranibizumab monthly, bevacizumab monthly, ranibizumab as needed, or bevacizumab as needed), at year 1, participants in the monthly groups were rerandomized to continue monthly treatment or to switch to as-needed treatment using the same drug as originally assigned. At year 2, participants were released from the protocol to treatment at the discretion of their ophthalmologist. At year 5, participants were recalled for examination. This present analysis, conducted from December 1, 2018, to September 30, 2019, compared the eyes of 40 participants (referred to as the cessation of treatment with good visual acuity, or CTGVA, group) with the eyes of the remainder of the CATT Follow-up Study (referred to as the other group). Main Outcomes and Measures: Visual acuity, morphologic characteristics, and number of treatments over 5 years. Results: Among 625 eyes with nAMD at baseline and a visual acuity measurement at year 5, 40 (6.4%; 95% CI, 4.7%-8.7%) were included in the analysis. These 40 participants, compared with the other group (n = 585), had a lower mean (SD) age of 74.7 (7.3) years (vs 77.7 [7.3] years; P = .01) and included 26 women (65.0%). Baseline characteristics were similar between eyes in the CTGVA and other groups, except for better visual acuity letter score in the study eye (68.8 vs 61.8; P = .001) and the fellow eye (78.4 vs 68.0; P = .01) as well as the presence of blocked fluorescence seen more often in participants in the CTGVA vs the other group (27.5% vs 13.8%; P = .02). Eyes in the CTGVA group with as-needed treatment received fewer mean (SD) injections in year 1 (5.8 [4.0] vs 8.1 [3.5]) and year 2 (7.7 [5.7] vs 13.8 [6.8]) than eyes in the other as-needed group. Mean (SD) visual acuity letter score at 5 years was 79.0 (5.5; Snellen 20/25) in the CTGVA group and 57.5 (24.2; Snellen 20/80) in the other group. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that a small proportion of eyes with nAMD can retain good visual acuity with no treatment for at least 3 years after the initial 2 years of treatment. Unique characteristics of eyes that could discontinue treatment while maintaining good visual acuity could not be identified at baseline, but data suggest that not all eyes with this disease may need treatment forever. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00593450.
Scoles, D; Ying, G-S; Pan, W; Hua, P; Grunwald, JE; Daniel, E; Jaffe, GJ; Toth, CA; Martin, DF; Maguire, MG; Comparison of AMD Treatments Trials Research Group,
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