Surrogacy Laws in the United States: What Obstetrician-Gynecologists Need to Know.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

The first child carried by a surrogate after in vitro fertilization in the United States was born in 1985. Since then, the number of such births has steadily grown. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the number of gestational carrier cycles increased from 727 in 1999 to 3,432 in 2013, encompassing more than 18,000 children born over this period. Surrogacy offers an alternative to adoption. However, it also disrupts traditional notions of parentage and gestation and complicates the role of obstetrician-gynecologists (ob-gyns) in helping their patients navigate difficult ethical issues. Surrogacy legislation falls under the jurisdiction of each individual state, which results in a variety of approaches. In this article, we review the legal aspects of surrogacy important for specialist ob-gyns, including select landmark court cases, states' approaches to surrogacy legislation, and unique components of informed consent. We also provide clinical recommendations specific to the United States for working with gestational surrogates and intended parents, spanning preconception, prenatal care, and delivery.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Tsai, S; Shaia, K; Woodward, JT; Sun, MY; Muasher, SJ

Published Date

  • March 2020

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 135 / 3

Start / End Page

  • 717 - 722

PubMed ID

  • 32028508

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1873-233X

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003698


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States