CAR T cells and checkpoint inhibition for the treatment of glioblastoma.
Introduction: Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive brain tumor and is one of the most lethal human cancers. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has markedly improved survival in previously incurable disease; however, this vanguard treatment still faces challenges in GBM. Likewise, checkpoint blockade therapies have not enjoyed the same victories against GBM. As it becomes increasingly evident that a mono-therapeutic approach is unlikely to provide anti-tumor efficacy, there evolves a critical need for combined treatment strategies.Areas covered: This review highlights the clinical successes observed with CAR T cell therapy as well the current efforts to overcome its perceived limitations. The review also explores employed combinations of CAR T cell approaches with immune checkpoint blockade strategies, which aim to potentiate immunotherapeutic benefits while restricting the impact of tumor heterogeneity and T cell exhaustion.Expert opinion: Barriers such as tumor heterogeneity and T cell exhaustion have exposed the weaknesses of various mono-immunotherapeutic approaches to GBM, including CAR T cell and checkpoint blockade strategies. Combining these potentially complementary strategies, however, may proffer a rational means of mitigating these barriers and advancing therapeutic successes against GBM and other solid tumors.
Shen, SH; Woroniecka, K; Barbour, AB; Fecci, PE; Sanchez-Perez, L; Sampson, JH
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