Liver Disease in Pregnancy: What's New.
Liver disease in pregnancy may present as a disorder that is unique to pregnancy or as an acute or chronic liver disease occurring coincidentally in pregnancy. Hepatic diseases that are unique to pregnancy include hyperemesis gravidarum; preeclampsia/eclampsia; the syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets; intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy; and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Acute and chronic forms of primary hepatic disorders that are seen in pregnancy include viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and cirrhosis. Because of the need to consider both maternal and fetal health, there are special considerations for the implementation of diagnostic strategies and pharmacologic therapies for liver disease that occurs in pregnancy. An understanding of the pathogenesis and expression of liver diseases in pregnancy has been evolving, and various diagnostic and prognostic tools have been studied in order to determine noninvasive approaches to identifying and staging of such diseases. Investigations have also been underway to evaluate the safety and utility of existing and new therapeutic agents that previously were thought to not be compatible with pregnancy. This review will explore updates in the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of various liver diseases seen in pregnancy.
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