Gender Disparities in Patients With Alcoholic Liver Disease Evaluated for Liver Transplantation.
BACKGROUND: The morbidity and mortality from alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is increasing in the United States. However, little is known about gender differences in evaluation and listing for liver transplantation (LT) in patients with ALD. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of adult patients with ALD evaluated for LT at a single transplant center from January 1, 2010, to March 1, 2017. Univariate, multivariate, and time-series analyses were performed. RESULTS: Among the 949 patients with ALD evaluated, mean age was 53 years, 84% were Caucasian, and 33% were women. The median model for end-stage liver disease score was similar between the genders. Women were less likely to be listed for LT (10% versus 19%; P < 0.05). The proportion of women not listed due to active substance use was significantly higher versus men (42% versus 35%; P < 0.05), while the frequency of medical contraindications was comparable between the genders. During a median follow-up of 416 days (range: 0-2784), listed women with ALD were less likely to undergo transplantation (42% versus 47%; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Men with ALD were 95% more likely to be listed and 105% more likely to be transplanted compared to women with ALD. While men had more lifetime substance use and related consequences, women had more psychiatric comorbidities and were less likely to be listed due to active alcohol and opioid use. Early detection and effective treatment of psychiatric and substance use disorders in women with ALD may improve their transplant eligibility.
McElroy, LM; Likhitsup, A; Scott Winder, G; Saeed, N; Hassan, A; Sonnenday, CJ; Fontana, RJ; Mellinger, J
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