Patients with acute and chronic coronary syndromes have elevated long-term thrombin generation.
Coronary artery disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite significant advances in revascularization strategies and antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and/or P2Y12 receptor antagonist, patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) continue to be at long-term risk of further cardiovascular events. Besides platelet activation, the role of thrombin generation (TG) in atherothrombotic complications is widely recognized. In this study, we hypothesized that there is an elevation of coagulation activation persists beyond 12 months in patients with ACS and chronic coronary syndrome (CCS) when compared with healthy controls. We measured TG profiles of patients within 72 h after percutaneous coronary intervention, at 6-month, 12-month and 24-month. Our results demonstrated that TG of patients with ACS (n = 114) and CCS (n = 40) were persistently elevated when compared to healthy individuals (n = 50) in peak thrombin (ACS 273.1 nM vs CCS 287.3 nM vs healthy 234.3 nM) and velocity index (ACS 110.2 nM/min vs CCS 111.0 nM/min vs healthy 72.9 nM/min) at 24-month of follow-up. Our results suggest a rationale for addition of anticoagulation to antiplatelet therapy in preventing long-term ischemic events after ACS. Further research could clarify whether the use of TG parameters to enable risk stratification of patients at heightened long-term procoagulant risk who may benefit most from dual pathway inhibition.
Yip, C; Seneviratna, A; Tan, S-H; Khaing, T; Chan, S-P; Loh, J; Lee, C-H; Low, AF; Drum, CL; Poh, S-C; Gibson, CM; Ohman, EM; Richards, AM; Chan, MY
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