A murine model of increased coronary sinus pressure induces myocardial edema with cardiac lymphatic dilation and fibrosis.
Myocardial edema is a consequence of many cardiovascular stressors, including myocardial infarction, cardiac bypass surgery, and hypertension. The aim of this study was to establish a murine model of myocardial edema and elucidate the response of cardiac lymphatics and the myocardium. Myocardial edema without infarction was induced in mice by cauterizing the coronary sinus, increasing pressure in the coronary venous system, and inducing myocardial edema. In male mice, there was rapid development of edema 3 h following coronary sinus cauterization (CSC), with associated dilation of cardiac lymphatics. By 24 h, males displayed significant cardiovascular contractile dysfunction. In contrast, female mice exhibited a temporal delay in the formation of myocardial edema, with onset of cardiovascular dysfunction by 24 h. Furthermore, myocardial edema induced a ring of fibrosis around the epicardial surface of the left ventricle in both sexes that included fibroblasts, immune cells, and increased lymphatics. Interestingly, the pattern of fibrosis and the cells that make up the fibrotic epicardial ring differ between sexes. We conclude that a novel surgical model of myocardial edema without infarct was established in mice. Cardiac lymphatics compensated by exhibiting both an acute dilatory and chronic growth response. Transient myocardial edema was sufficient to induce a robust epicardial fibrotic and inflammatory response, with distinct sex differences, which underscores the sex-dependent differences that exist in cardiac vascular physiology.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Myocardial edema is a consequence of many cardiovascular stressors, including myocardial infarction, cardiac bypass surgery, and high blood pressure. Cardiac lymphatics regulate interstitial fluid balance and, in a myocardial infarction model, have been shown to be therapeutically targetable by increasing heart function. Cardiac lymphatics have only rarely been studied in a noninfarct setting in the heart, and so we characterized the first murine model of increased coronary sinus pressure to induce myocardial edema, demonstrating distinct sex differences in the response to myocardial edema. The temporal pattern of myocardial edema induction and resolution is different between males and females, underscoring sex-dependent differences in the response to myocardial edema. This model provides an important platform for future research in cardiovascular and lymphatic fields with the potential to develop therapeutic interventions for many common cardiovascular diseases.
Nielsen, NR; Rangarajan, KV; Mao, L; Rockman, HA; Caron, KM
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