Contracture and transient receptor potential channel upregulation in the anterior glenohumeral joint capsule of patients with end-stage osteoarthritis.
BACKGROUND: During anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) for primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis (GHOA), the anterior shoulder joint capsule (ASJC) is characterized grossly by contracture, synovitis, and fibrosis. In tissues that develop fibrosis, there is substantial cross-talk between macrophages, fibroblasts, and myofibroblasts, modulated by calcium signaling and transient receptor potential (TRP) channel signaling. The purpose of this study was to compare and characterize the degree of synovitis, inflammatory infiltrate, and TRP channel expression in ASJC harvested from shoulders with and without primary GHOA. METHODS: The ASJC was resected from patients undergoing TSA for primary GHOA or other diagnoses and compared with ASJC from cadaveric donors with no history of shoulder pathology. ASJC was evaluated by immunohistochemistry to characterize synovial lining and capsular inflammatory cell infiltrate and fibrosis, and to evaluate for expression of TRPA1, TRPV1, and TRPV4, known to be involved in fibrosis in other tissues. Blinded sections were evaluated by 3 graders using a semiquantitative scale; then results were compared between diagnosis groups using nonparametric methods. RESULTS: Compared with normal control, the ASJC in primary GHOA had significantly increased synovitis, fibrosis, mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate including multiple macrophages subsets, and upregulation of TRP channel expression. CONCLUSION: These data support the clinical findings of ASJC and synovial fibrosis in primary GHOA, identify a mixed inflammatory response, and identify dysregulation of TRP channels in the synovium and joint capsule. Further studies will identify the role of synovial and capsular fibrosis early in the development of GHOA.
Chainani, A; Matson, A; Chainani, M; Marchand Colon, AJ; Toth, AP; Garrigues, GE; Little, D
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