Comparing the Use of Silicone Wristbands, Hand Wipes, And Dust to Evaluate Children's Exposure to Flame Retardants and Plasticizers.
Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are applied as additive flame retardants, and along with phthalates, are also used as plasticizers in consumer products. As such, human exposure is common and chronic. Deployed as personal passive samplers, silicone wristbands have been shown to detect over a thousand industrial and consumer product chemicals; however, few studies have evaluated chemical concentrations with their corresponding biomarkers of exposure, especially in children. Further, little is known about how well the wristbands predict individual exposure compared to existing validated external exposure tools such as indoor air, dust, and hand wipes. Here, we analyzed wristbands worn by children (ages 3-6) for 18 OPEs and 10 phthalates and compared them to corresponding urinary biomarkers. In wristbands, 13 of 18 OPEs and all phthalates were detected in >80% of wristbands, and 6 OPEs and 4 phthalates were significantly associated with corresponding urinary metabolites (rs = 0.2-0.6, p < 0.05). When compared to paired hand wipes and house dust, wristbands were found to have similar or greater correlation coefficients with respective urinary biomarkers. These results suggest that wristbands can serve as effective and quantitative assessment tools for evaluating personal exposure to some OPEs and phthalates, and for certain chemicals, may provide a better exposure estimate than indoor dust.
Hammel, SC; Hoffman, K; Phillips, AL; Levasseur, JL; Lorenzo, AM; Webster, TF; Stapleton, HM
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