Racial Differences in the Associations Between Food Insecurity and Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.
OBJECTIVE: Food insecurity is associated with consumption of phosphate additive-laden processed food and beverage products, which could result in higher levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) to compensate for the increased dietary phosphate load. We sought to determine whether food insecurity is associated with higher levels of FGF23. We stratified analyses by race since differences may occur between food insecurity and diet quality across races. DESIGN AND METHODS: The longitudinal community-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study recruited from 4 US centers: Birmingham, AL; Chicago, IL; Minneapolis, MN; and Oakland, CA, during the cohort inception in 1985/1986. This analysis included 3,421 black and white participants from Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults follow-up years 20, 25, and 30 who were enrolled in the study between the ages of 18 and 30 years. Econometric fixed effects models stratified by race that adjust by design for all time-invariant covariates were used to model the longitudinal association of food insecurity, defined as the self-reported ability to afford desired quantity and quality of food. The main outcome of interest was changing to the highest quartile of plasma FGF-23 concentrations. RESULTS: During follow-up, 29% of blacks and 14% of whites experienced change in food security. Developing food insecurity was associated with a 1.48 greater odds of increasing to the highest quartile of FGF23 (95% confidence interval 1.02-2.15) among blacks; however, there was no significant longitudinal association among whites (odds ratio = 1.14, 95% confidence interval 0.67-1.95). CONCLUSIONS: Among blacks, food insecurity was associated with an increase in levels of FGF23. Although phosphate consumption was presumed to mediate the association between food insecurity and FGF23 levels, we were unable to directly test this pathway.
Pool, LR; Kershaw, KN; Gordon-Larsen, P; Gutiérrez, OM; Reis, JP; Isakova, T; Wolf, M; Carnethon, MR
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