Smart neuromodulation in movement disorders.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a technique for invasive subcortical neuromodulation using a totally implantable permanent device. DBS is an effective therapy for movement disorders and is under investigation for the treatment of many other conditions including Tourette syndrome, epilepsy, and depression. Traditional DBS is limited by labor-intensive manual programming, high current requirements, and lack of responsiveness to fluctuations in the patient's signs and symptoms. The field is moving toward adaptive closed loop systems with stimulation modulated by peripheral or intracranial sensors, a technique often described as "smart neuromodulation." Advances in the understanding of brain rhythms associated with specific neurologic symptoms and the introduction of novel bidirectional neural interfaces are facilitating investigative studies of closed loop stimulation in movement disorders. These studies suggest the potential for greater efficacy with fewer adverse effects. It may be possible to generalize the hardware platforms and control strategies developed to other brain disorders.
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