Disentangling the Relationships Between the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System, Calcium Physiology, and Risk for Kidney Stones.
CONTEXT: Complex relationships between aldosterone and calcium homeostasis have been proposed. OBJECTIVE: To disentangle the influence of aldosterone and intravascular volume on calcium physiology. DESIGN: Patient-oriented and epidemiology studies. SETTING: Clinical research center and nationwide cohorts. PARTICIPANTS/INTERVENTIONS: Patient-oriented study (n = 18): Participants were evaluated after completing a sodium-restricted (RES) diet to contract intravascular volume and after a liberalized-sodium (LIB) diet to expand intravascular volume. Cross-sectional studies (n = 3755): the association between 24h urinary sodium and calcium excretion and risk for kidney stones was assessed. RESULTS: Patient-oriented study: compared to a RES-diet, a LIB-diet suppressed renin activity (LIB: 0.3 [0.1, 0.4] vs. RES: 3.1 [1.7, 5.3] ng/mL/h; P < 0.001) and plasma aldosterone (LIB: 2.0 [2.0, 2.7] vs. RES: 20.0 [16.1, 31.0] vs. ng/dL; P < 0.001), but increased calciuria (LIB: 238.4 ± 112.3 vs. RES: 112.9 ± 60.8 mg/24hr; P < 0.0001) and decreased serum calcium (LIB: 8.9 ± 0.3 vs. RES: 9.8 ± 0.4 mg/dL; P < 0.0001). Epidemiology study: mean urinary calcium excretion was higher with greater urinary sodium excretion. Compared to a urinary sodium excretion of < 120 mEq/day, a urinary sodium excretion of ≥220 mEq/day was associated with a higher risk for having kidney stones in women (risk ratio = 1.79 [95% confidence interval 1.05, 3.04]) and men (risk ratio = 2.06 [95% confidence interval 1.27, 3.32]). CONCLUSIONS: High dietary sodium intake suppresses aldosterone, decreases serum calcium, and increases calciuria and the risk for developing kidney stones. Our findings help disentangle the influences of volume from aldosterone on calcium homeostasis and provide support for the recommendation to restrict dietary sodium for kidney stone prevention.
Bayomy, O; Zaheer, S; Williams, JS; Curhan, G; Vaidya, A
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