Induction of Neuroinflammation and Neurotoxicity by Synthetic Hemozoin.
Hemozoin produced by Plasmodium falciparum during malaria infection has been linked to the neurological dysfunction in cerebral malaria. In this study, we determined whether a synthetic form of hemozoin (sHZ) produces neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity in cellular models. Incubation of BV-2 microglia with sHZ (200 and 400 µg/ml) induced significant elevation in the levels of TNFα, IL-6, IL-1β, NO/iNOS, phospho-p65, accompanied by an increase in DNA binding of NF-κB. Treatment of BV-2 microglia with sHZ increased protein levels of NLRP3 with accompanying increase in caspase-1 activity. In the presence of NF-κB inhibitor BAY11-7082 (10 µM), there was attenuation of sHZ-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, NO/iNOS. In addition, increase in caspase-1/NLRP3 inflammasome activation was blocked by BAY11-7082. Pre-treatment with BAY11-7082 also reduced both phosphorylation and DNA binding of the p65 sub-unit. The NLRP3 inhibitor CRID3 (100 µM) did not prevent sHZ-induced release of TNFα and IL-6. However, production of IL-1β, NO/iNOS as well as caspase-1/NLRP3 activity was significantly reduced in the presence of CRID3. Incubation of differentiated neural progenitor (ReNcell VM) cells with sHZ resulted in a reduction in cell viability, accompanied by significant generation of cellular ROS and increased activity of caspase-6, while sHZ-induced neurotoxicity was prevented by N-acetylcysteine and Z-VEID-FMK. Taken together, this study shows that the synthetic form of hemozoin induces neuroinflammation through the activation of NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome. It is also proposed that sHZ induces ROS- and caspase-6-mediated neurotoxicity. These results have thrown more light on the actions of malarial hemozoin in the neurobiology of cerebral malaria.
Velagapudi, R; Kosoko, AM; Olajide, OA
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