Non-targeted urinary metabolomics in pregnancy and associations with fetal growth restriction.
Our objective was to identify metabolites associated with fetal growth restriction (FGR) by examining early and late pregnancy differences in non-targeted urinary metabolites among FGR cases and non-FGR controls. An exploratory case-control study within LIFECODES birth cohort was performed. FGR cases (N = 30), defined as birthweight below the 10th percentile, were matched with controls (N = 30) based on maternal age, race, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and gestational age at delivery. Gas chromatography/electron-ionization mass spectrometry was performed on urine samples collected at 10 and 26 weeks of gestation. Differences in urinary metabolite levels in cases and controls at each time point and between the two time points were calculated and then changes compared across pregnancy. 137 unique urinary metabolites were annotated, and several identified that were higher in cases compared to controls. For example, urinary concentrations of benzoic acid were higher in cases compared to controls at both study visits (3.01-fold higher in cases at visit 1, p < 0.01; 3.10-fold higher in cases at visit 3, p = 0.05). However, these findings from our exploratory analysis were not robust to false-discovery-rate adjustment. In conclusion, using a high-resolution, non-targeted approach, we found specific urinary organic acids differed over pregnancy by FGR case status.
Clinton, CM; Bain, JR; Muehlbauer, MJ; Li, Y; Li, L; O'Neal, SK; Hughes, BL; Cantonwine, DE; Mcelrath, TF; Ferguson, KK
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