Optimizing Cardiovascular Health in Patients With Cancer: A Practical Review of Risk Assessment, Monitoring, and Prevention of Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiovascular Toxicity.
Advances in cancer screening and improved treatment approaches have led to an increase in survivorship and, consequently, recognition of an association between cancer treatments and the development of cardiovascular complications. In addition, as the population becomes proportionally older, comorbid cardiovascular risk factors are more prevalent in the population and compound the risk of developing cancer treatment-related cardiovascular toxicity. Cardio-oncology has emerged as a new subspecialty of medicine that provides a multidisciplinary approach, bringing together oncologists, cardiologists, and allied health care providers who are tasked with optimizing the cardiovascular health of patients exposed to potentially cardiotoxic cancer therapy. Using a case-based approach, practical advice on how to identify, monitor, and treat patients with cancer who are at risk for developing cancer treatment-related cardiovascular dysfunction is discussed. Cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., age, hypertension, diabetes) and cancer therapies (chemotherapy, targeted therapy, radiation) associated with cardiovascular toxicity are presented. Current cardiac monitoring strategies such as two- and three-dimensional echocardiography, cardiac MRI, and biomarkers (troponin and brain natriuretic peptide [BNP]) are discussed. Last, the current literature on pharmacologic (e.g., angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, β-blockers, statins) and lifestyle (diet and exercise) strategies to mitigate cardiovascular toxicity during and following completion of cancer therapy are reviewed.
Dent, SF; Kikuchi, R; Kondapalli, L; Ismail-Khan, R; Brezden-Masley, C; Barac, A; Fradley, M
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