Analgesic use at ovulation and implantation and human fertility.
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the effects of pain-relieving medication use on conceiving a pregnancy have shown conflicting results. Furthermore, no previous study has examined medication use around ovulation or implantation and the associations with the probability of conception, fecundability. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to explore the association between fecundability and analgesic use in 3 different menstrual cycle windows (preovulation, periovulation, and implantation) as well as across the entire menstrual cycle. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data from a prospective cohort study of women between 30 and 44 years of age who were trying to conceive naturally from 2008 through 2015. Using daily diaries, medication usage was classified as acetaminophen, aspirin, or nonaspirin nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug during 4 time periods of interest (preovulatory, periovulatory, and implantation) as well as the overall nonmenstrual bleeding days of the cycle. Menstrual cycles during the prospective attempt to become pregnant were enumerated using daily diary menstrual bleeding information. Conception was defined as a positive home pregnancy test. Discrete time fecundability models were used to estimate the fecundability ratio and 95% confidence interval in each of the 4 time windows of interest and for each pain reliever (aspirin use, nonaspirin nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use, acetaminophen) compared with no medication use after adjustment for several covariates including age, race, education, body mass index, alcohol and caffeine use, frequency of intercourse, and a history of migraines or uterine fibroids. RESULTS: Medication use was infrequent in the 858 women and 2366 cycles in this analysis. Use of nonaspirin nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs or acetaminophen was not associated with fecundability in any of the time windows of interest. Although the sample size was small, aspirin use during the implantation window was associated with increased fecundability (adjusted fecundability ratio [confidence interval]: 2.05 [1.23-3.41]). This association remained when limiting the analysis to cycles with minimal missing data or when adjusting for gravidity. None of the other medications were associated with fecundability. CONCLUSION: Aspirin use around implantation was associated with increased fecundability. These results expand previous literature to suggest the following: (1) implantation may be an important target for the effects of aspirin on conception and (2) aspirin may be beneficial, regardless of pregnancy loss history. These observations should be tested with a clinical trial.
Jukic, AMZ; Padiyara, P; Bracken, MB; McConnaughey, DR; Steiner, AZ
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