Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus: Progress and Challenges.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review provides an update on the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment of cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE). RECENT FINDINGS: Diagnostic challenges exist in better defining CLE as an independent disease distinct from systemic lupus erythematosus with cutaneous features and further classifying CLE based on clinical, histological, and laboratory features. Recent mechanistic studies revealed more genetic variations, environmental triggers, and immunologic dysfunctions that are associated with CLE. Drug induction specifically has emerged as one of the most important triggers for CLE. Treatment options include topical agents and systemic therapies, including newer biologics such as belimumab, rituximab, ustekinumab, anifrolumab, and BIIB059 that have shown good clinical efficacy in trials. CLE is a group of complex and heterogenous diseases. Future studies are warranted to better define CLE within the spectrum of lupus erythematosus. Better insight into the pathogenesis of CLE could facilitate the design of more targeted therapies.
Petty, AJ; Floyd, L; Henderson, C; Nicholas, MW
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