Terahertz digital holographic imaging
© 2020, OSA - The Optical Society. All rights reserved. This tutorial describes the application of digital holography to the terahertz spectral region and demonstrates how to reconstruct images of complex dielectric targets. Using highly coherent terahertz sources, high-fidelity amplitude and phase reconstructions are achieved, but because the millimeter-scale wavelengths approach the decimeter-sized targets and optical components, undesirable aperture diffraction degrades the quality of the reconstructions. Consequently, off-axis terahertz digital holography differs significantly from its visible light counterpart. This tutorial addresses these challenges within the angular spectrum method and the Fresnel approximation for digital hologram reconstruction, from which the longitudinal and transverse resolution limits may be specified. We observed longitudinal resolution (λ∕284) almost two times better than has been achieved with visible light digital holographic microscopy and demonstrate that submicrometer longitudinal resolution is possible using millimeter wavelengths for an imager limited ultimately by the phase stability of the terahertz source and/or receiver. Minimizing the number of optical components, using only large reflective optics, maximizing the angle of the off-axis reference beam, and judicious selection of spatial frequency filters all contribute to improve the quality of the reconstructed image. As in visible wavelength analog holography, the observed transverse resolution in terahertz digital holography is comparable to the wavelength but improves for features near the edge of the imaged object compared with features near the center, a behavior characterized by a modified description of the holographic transfer function introduced here. Holograms were recorded by raster scanning a sensitive superheterodyne receiver, and several visibly transparent and opaque dielectric structures were quantitatively examined to demonstrate the compelling application of terahertz digital holography for nondestruc-tive test, evaluation, and analysis.
Heimbeck, MS; Everitt, HO
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