Special Considerations Related to Race, Sex, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status in the Preoperative Evaluation: Part 1: Race, History of Incarceration, and Health Literacy.
Patients anticipating surgery and anesthesia often need preoperative care to reduce risk and facilitate services on the day of surgery. Preparing patients often requires extensive evaluation and coordination of care. Vulnerable, marginalized, and disenfranchised populations have special concerns, limitations, and needs. These patients may have unidentified or poorly managed comorbidities. Underrepresented minorities and transgender patients may avoid or have limited access to health care. Homelessness, limited health literacy, and incarceration hinder perioperative optimization initiatives. Identifying patients who will benefit from additional resource allocation and knowledge of their special challenges is vital to reducing disparities in health and health care.
Blitz, J; Swisher, J; Sweitzer, B
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